Andrew Carnegie’s decision to guide library construction developed outside of their own experience. Born in 1835, he spent his first 12 years on the coastal city of Dunfermline, Scotland. There he heard men read aloud and discuss books borrowed with the Tradesmen’s Subscription Library that his father, a weaver, had helped create. Carnegie began his formal education at age eight, but must stop after only 36 months. The rapid industrialization for the textile trade forced small businessmen like Carnegie’s father using business. Therefore, your family sold their belongings and immigrated to Allegheny, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Andrew Carnegie’s decision to guide library construction developed outside of their own experience. Born in 1835, he spent his first 12 years on the coastal city of Dunfermline, Scotland. There he heard men read aloud and discuss books borrowed with the Tradesmen’s Subscription Library that his father, a weaver, had helped create.http://writing4you.com/resume-writer Carnegie began his formal education at age eight, but must stop after only 36 months. The rapid industrialization for the textile trade forced small businessmen like Carnegie’s father using business. Therefore, your family sold their belongings and immigrated to Allegheny, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Although these new circumstances required the young Carnegie to check out work, his learning failed to end. Following a year in a very textile factory, he became a messenger boy to your local telegraph company. A portion of his fellow messengers introduced him to Col. James Anderson of Allegheny, who every Saturday opened his personal library to your young worker who wished to borrow a book. Carnegie later said the colonel opened the windows where light of information streamed. In 1853, after the colonel’s representatives aimed to restrict the library’s use, Carnegie wrote a letter into the editor of your Pittsburgh Dispatch defending the ideal of all working boys to have the pleasures belonging to the library. More essential, he resolved that, should he ever be wealthy, he makes similar opportunities available to other poor workers.

Over the next half-century Carnegie accumulated the fortune which would enable him to satisfy that pledge. Throughout his years as the messenger, Carnegie had taught himself the art of telegraphy. This skill helped him make contacts with all the Pennsylvania Railroad, where he went along to just work at age 18. Throughout his 12-year railroad association he rose quickly, ultimately becoming superintendent belonging to the Pennsylvania’s Pittsburgh division. He simultaneously invested in many other businesses, including railroad locomotives, oil, and iron and steel. In 1865, Carnegie left the railroad to deal with the Keystone Bridge Company, that has been successfully replacing wooden railroad bridges with iron ones. By your 1870s he was centering on steel manufacturing, ultimately creating the Carnegie Steel Company. In 1901 he sold that business for $250 million.

Carnegie then retired and devoted the remainder of his life to philanthropy. Prior to selling Carnegie Steel he had started to consider how to handle his immense fortune. In 1889 he wrote a famous essay entitled The Gospel of Wealth, wherein he stated that wealthy men should live without extravagance, provide moderately regarding their dependents, and distribute the remainder of their riches to help the welfare and happiness from the common man–with the consideration for helping just those who would help themselves. The Most Effective Fields for Philanthropy, his second essay, listed seven fields which the wealthy should donate: universities, libraries, medical centers, public parks, meeting and concert halls, public baths, and churches. He later expanded this list to include gifts that promoted scientific research, the general spread of information, as well as the promotion of world peace. A great number of organizations keep this very day: the Carnegie Corporation in New York City, as an example ,, helps support Sesame Street.

Resulting from his background, Carnegie was particularly interested in public libraries. At one point he stated a library was the best possible gift to have a community, given it gave people the opportunity to improve themselves. His confidence was in accordance with the results of similar gifts from earlier philanthropists. In Baltimore, for example, a library offered by Enoch Pratt has been made use of by 37,000 people in 12 month. Carnegie thought that the relatively small number of public library patrons were of more value to their own community as opposed to masses who chose to never gain benefit from the library.

Carnegie divided his donations to libraries to the retail and wholesale periods. Over the retail period, 1886 to 1896, he gave $1,860,869 for 14 endowed buildings in six communities in the states. These buildings were actually community centers, containing recreational facilities for instance private pools together with libraries. From the years after 1896, called the wholesale period, Carnegie not supported urban multipurpose buildings. Instead he gave $39,172,981 to smaller communities who had limited entry to cultural institutions. His gifts provided 1,406 towns with buildings devoted exclusively to libraries. Over half his grants were cheaper than $10,000. Although a lot of the towns receiving gifts were inside Midwest, altogether 46 states benefited from Carnegie’s plan.

Andrew Carnegie stopped making gifts for library construction carrying out a report designed to him by Dr. Alvin Johnson, an economics professor. In 1916 Dr. Johnson visited 100 belonging to the existing Carnegie libraries and studied their social significance, physical aspects, effectiveness, and financial condition. His final report determined that to always be really effective, the libraries needed trained personnel. Buildings were provided, these days the time had come to staff them experts who would stimulate active, efficient libraries of their communities. Libraries already promised continued to generally be built until 1923, but after 1919 all financial support was looked to library education.

When Andrew Carnegie died in 1919 at age 84, he had given nearly one-fourth of his life to causes by which he believed. His gifts to several charities totalled nearly $350 million, almost 90 % of his fortune. Carnegie regarded all education as a method to boost people’s lives, and libraries provided one of his main tools for helping Americans generate a brighter future. Questions for Reading 1 1. How did progress and industrialization affect Carnegie, both when he was young, and down the road? 2. Exactely how much formal education did Carnegie have? What factors led to his involvement in books and reading? 3. What did Carnegie believe wealthy people must do with the money? Why did he reckon that? Will you agree? 4. How did supporting libraries fit with Carnegie’s past and his awesome beliefs? Reading 1 was compiled from George S. Bobinski, Carnegie Libraries (Chicago: American Library Association, 1969); Andrew Carnegie, Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie, reprint (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1920 1986); Barry Sears, Over the Trail of Carnegie Libraries, Antiques and Collecting (February 1994); Gerald R. Shields, Recycling Buildings for Libraries, Public Libraries (March/April 1994).